Islam is a religious denomination originating from Earth.
In the Books
Takeshi remembers an event that happened while a member of C.T.A.C.. He and his team were dispatched in the planet Sharya, whose population were predominately Muslim. A group of fundamentalist had seized control of the planet and were leading a jihad against the rule of the U.N.I.P.. Their soldiers made use of certain genetically enhanced bodies they referred to as "The Hand of God." They were eventually beaten, as the technology and genetic engineering they were using was outdated compared to what was used by C.T.A.C.
Very little mention is made of Islam in the TV series. The only mention of it comes from the character of Samir Abboud, who comments that "I'm a Muslim, not a monk," in response to Kristin Ortega's question as to why he does not object to her drinking.
From comments made by various characters, Islam, alongside the Catholic Church and various other religious denominations, applies religious coding to its members Cortical Stack's which prohibit certain procedures- such as a person been spun back up after death, for example.
However, unlike the Catholic Church, Islam does not seem to have any objections to a person using genetically enhanced clones or re-sleeving from living body to living body, or even the use of virtual reality (which was used as a means of torture in the book interpretation).